26.01.2015 15:01
O myších a lidech...

Myší raj a úpadok spoločnosti

Výzkum chování potkanů v ideálním světě, bez spolupráce to končí vyhynutím druhu.
29.01.2015 10:01
São Paulo, dvanácté největší město světa, nemá od roku 2007 žádnou venkovní reklamu.

Cidade Limpa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
São Paulo No Logo - an album on Flickr
03.02.2015 12:28
Russian Mafia Gravestones - Imgur
06.02.2015 08:45
Jak se vyrábí autentické zákaznické hodnocení (ne že by to byla novinka)
Hodnocení mobilních aplikací v marketu je často podvod | cdr.cz
09.03.2015 13:21
Zajímavý problém okolo pravděpodobnosti
Sleeping Beauty problem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
13.03.2015 12:02
Disociativní porucha identity:
The Night My Girlfriend Dissociated and Forgot Who I Was

Zkušenost z diskuse na Hacker News:
This is how it usually goes with my wife:

Wife: (looking at me suspiciously)
Me: "Are you confused?"
Wife: (nods yes)
Me: "Do you know who I am?"
Wife: (shakes head no)
Me: "I am your husband"
Wife: (looks at me, wide-eyed, more suspicious)
Me: "Do you have a headache?"
Wife: "Yes..."
Me: "It's going to be okay. This happens when you get bad headaches. I can give you some medicine. Once your headache gets better you will remember everything"
22.03.2015 17:06
Volný přístup k fotkám SpaceX | www.kosmonautix.cz

Už jen samotná informace o tom, že firma SpaceX založilasvůj profil na populárním serveru Flickr, který je určený pro ukládání fotografií, by byla potěšující. Stačí jen letmý pohled a hned je jasné, že setu ukrývají velmi povedené snímky všeho, co souvisí s provozem SpaceX. Ale ještě zajímavější je, že všechny snímky na tomto profilu jsou od 18. března pod licencí Creative Commons s atributem 2.0 Generic. Tohle odborné konstatování asi málokomu něco řekne, ale znamená to, že tyto fotky jsou k dispozici všem lidem pro jakékoliv využití včetně komerčního! Jediné, co je potřeba je uvést zdroj. SpaceX se tak přidává na stranu, kde je třeba NASA. Za tento krok patří americké firmě velký palec nahoru a nyní malá ochutnávka tří fotek ze zmíněného profilu.
Flickr: Official SpaceX Photos' Photostream
29.03.2015 21:50
The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project
More than a hundred years ago an extraordinary mechanism was found by sponge divers at the bottom of the sea near the island of Antikythera. It astonished the whole international community of experts on the ancient world. Was it an astrolabe? Was it an orrery or an astronomical clock? Or something else?

For decades, scientific investigation failed to yield much light and relied more on imagination than the facts. However research over the last half century has begun to reveal its secrets. The machine dates from around the end of the 2nd century B.C. and is the most sophisticated mechanism known from the ancient world. Nothing as complex is known for the next thousand years. The Antikythera Mechanism is now understood to be dedicated to astronomical phenomena and operates as a complex mechanical "computer" which tracks the cycles of the Solar System.
06.05.2015 12:10
China rates its own citizens - including online behaviour
The Chinese government is currently implementing a nationwide electronic system, called the Social Credit System, attributing to each of its 1,3 billion citizens a score for his or her behavior. The system will be based on various criteria, ranging from financial credibility and criminal record to social media behavior. From 2020 onwards each adult citizen should, besides his identity card, have such a credit code.
Chinese internet firms are definitely interested, as Ant Financial, a subsidiary of ecommercegiant Alibaba, recently showed. To its popular app Alipay it added a new service which rated a person's credit worthiness on a scale of 350 to 950 points. This score is not only determined by one's lending behavior, but also by hobbies and friends. If friends have a poor lending reputation, this reflects badly on the person, just as prolonged playing of video games. Buying diapers indicates responsibility and scores therefore well.
'This is the most staggering, publicly announced, scaled use of big data I've ever seen', says Michael Fertik, a Silicon Valley entrepreneur and author of The Reputation Economy. 'It certainly feels about as Orwellian as your nightmares would have it be."
A primární dokument, ze kterého článek vychází
Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020) «…
06.05.2015 12:13
The Dying Rooms - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parents across China decided they needed to get rid of their female/disabled babies. A loophole was soon found in the law. It was illegal to kill your child directly (as in to stab or shoot them) but it was not illegal to kill them through neglect. 'Orphanages' were opened to cater to the new demand. Parents would take their children there, where the staff would leave the children in rooms to die of thirst or starvation. The film was produced over the course of two years. Kate Blewett, Brian Woods and Peter Woolrich all pretended to work in the orphanages that would be the focus of the film. They found evidence that very young children were deliberately neglected and allowed to die in agonizing ways.
06.05.2015 12:16
Quadratic voting
Majority rule based on one-person-one-vote notoriously results in tyranny of the majority–a large number of people who care only a little about an outcome prevail over a minority that cares passionately, resulting in a reduction of aggregate welfare.

Quadratic voting is a procedure that a group of people can use to jointly choose a collective good for themselves. Each person can buy votes for or against a proposal by paying into a fund the square of the number of votes that he or she buys. The money is then returned to voters on a per capita basis. Weyl and Lalley prove that the collective decision rapidly approximates efficiency as the number of voters increases.
Paper je k přečtení zde
Voting Squared: Quadratic Voting in Democratic Politics by Eric A. Posner, E.…
Democratic institutions aggregate preferences poorly. The norm of one-person-one-vote with majority rule treats people fairly by giving everyone an equal chance to influence outcomes, but fails to give proportional weight to people whose interests in a social outcome are stronger than those of other people — a problem that leads to the familiar phenomenon of tyranny of the majority. Various institutions that have been tried or proposed over the years to correct this problem — including supermajority rule, weighted voting, cumulative voting, "mixed constitutions," executive discretion, and judicially protected rights — all badly misfire in various ways, for example, by creating gridlock or corruption. This paper proposes a new form of political decision-making based on the theory of quadratic voting. It explains how quadratic voting solves the preference aggregation problem, giving proper weight to preferences of varying intensity, and how it could be implemented as well as addressing concerns about its consequences for equity.
10.05.2015 14:02
jak by dopadlo Vaše město po nukleárním výbuchu... NUKEMAP by Alex Wellerstein
08.07.2015 13:33
Pančování olivového oleje

Slippery Business - The New Yorker

Olive oil is far more valuable than most other vegetable oils, but it is costly and time-consuming to produce—and surprisingly easy to doctor.

In February, 2005, the N.A.S. Carabinieri broke up a criminal ring operating in several regions of Italy, and confiscated a hundred thousand litres of fake olive oil, with a street value of six million euros (about eight million dollars). The ring, which allegedly sold its products in northern Italy and in Germany, is accused of coloring low-grade soy oil and canola oil with industrial chlorophyll, flavoring it with beta-carotene, and packaging it as extra-virgin olive oil in tins and bottles emblazoned with pictures of Italian flags or Mt. Vesuvius, and with folksy names of imaginary producers—the Farmhouse, the Ancient Millstones.

More sophisticated scams, like Domenico Ribatti’s, typically take place at high-tech refineries, where the oil is doctored with substances like hazelnut oil and deodorized lampante olive oil, which are extremely difficult to detect by chemical analysis.
10.08.2015 20:11
Název:  1376995898733746097.gif
Zobrazení: 523
Velikost:  642,1 KB
25.09.2015 15:21
oh my dear, this is really really stunning
MIT’s Super-Fast Camera Can Capture Light as it Travels | GOOD…
17.10.2015 22:50
How To Get Away With (The Perfect) Murder
20.10.2015 02:34
The Lonely Death of George Bell
Dying alone in New York City
01.11.2015 13:49
Everybody in this room is wearing a uniform, and don't kid yourself.
- Frank Zappa

Každodenní uniformy.
04.11.2015 14:30
Komiks o dospívání, identitě a o čekání na budoucnost
The Guy I Almost Was | Graphic Novel by Patrick Sean Farley…
06.11.2015 13:25
Žáci třetí třídy pochopí díky sokratické metodě binární aritmetiku
The Socratic Method…
23.11.2015 12:58
Dva sociologové popisují změny ve společnosti v USA a mluví o kultuře "Kdo je větší oběť?" (victimhood culture). (Abychom o tom mohli efektivně mluvit v češtině a slovenštině, budeme muset vymyslet lepší překlad. Napadá někoho?)

The Rise of the Culture of Victimhood Explained - Hit & Run : Reason.com…
Microaggressions and the Rise of Victimhood Culture - The Atlantic…

U.S. society is in the midst of a large-scale moral change in which we are experiencing the emergence of a victimhood culture that is distinct from the honor cultures and dignity cultures of the past. If true, this bodes really bad for future social and political peace.

In honor cultures, people (men) maintained their honor by responding to insults, slights, violations of rights by self-help violence. Generally honor cultures exist where the rule of law is weak. In honor cultures, people protected themselves, their families, and property through having a reputation for swift violence. During the 19th century, most Western societies began the moral transition toward dignity cultures in which all citizens were legally endowed with equal rights. In such societies, persons, property, and rights are defended by recourse to third parties, usually courts, police, and so forth, that, if necessary, wield violence on their behalf. Dignity cultures practice tolerance and are much more peaceful than honor cultures.

Sociologists Bradley Campbell and Jason Manning are arguing that the U.S. is now transitioning to a victimhood culture that combines both the honor culture's quickness to take offense with the dignity culture's use of third parties to police and punish transgressions. The result is people are encouraged to think of themselves as weak, marginalized, and oppressed. This is nothing less than demoralizing and polarizing as everybody seeks to become a "victim."
16.12.2015 23:58
Demografická data o hráčích her (studie z USA)
Hry hraje polovina populace, obě pohlaví stejně. 10% se považuje za hráče ("gamer") - víc muži než ženy:
A nearly identical share of men and women report ever playing video games (50% of men and 48% of women).

Young adults are particularly likely to play video games, as well as to identify as “gamers.” Two-thirds (67%) of those ages 18 to 29 say they play video games, while 22% say the term “gamer” describes them well.

Young men in particular play games and identify as “gamers.” Fully 77% of men ages 18 to 29 play video games (more than any other demographic group), compared with 57% of young women – a 20-point difference. Additionally, one-third of young men agree that the term “gamer” describes them well, more than three times the proportion of young women (9%) who describe themselves as gamers.
Starší lidé hrají hodně, ženy nad 50 let (38%) víc než muži nad 50 let (29%), ale málokdo se považuje za hráče:
Although playing video games is especially popular among young adults, a substantial number of older adults play video games as well. More than half (58%) of those ages 30 to 49 play video games, along with 40% of those ages 50 to 64 and 25% of those 65 or older.

In stark contrast to young adults, women ages 50 or older are actually more likely to play video games than men of the same age. Among adults ages 50 and older, 38% of women play video games compared with 29% of men.

Although a notable number of older adults play video games, very few identify as gamers. For instance, just 4% of Americans ages 50 or older feel that this term describes them well. The gender gap in gamer identification also decreases substantially for older age cohorts. As noted above, men ages 18 to 29 are more than three times as likely as their female counterparts to identify as gamers (33% vs. 9%). Among 30- to 49-year-olds, men are twice as likely to identify as gamers (15% vs. 7%). However, among those 50 and older, gamer identification is all but identical between men and women (4% vs. 3%).
19.01.2016 17:14
Jak fungují fabs/foundries, továrny vyrábějící polovodičové součástky
Semiconductor fabrication plant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia…
Cleanroom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia…

Rock's Law - Cena zařízení k výrobě polovodičů se každé čtyři roky zdvojnásobí
5 Commandments - IEEE Spectrum…

Dnes stojí nová továrna až 14 miliard dolarů.

Propagační video TSMC, největšího výrobce polovodičů na světě (obrat v roce 2013 činil 19 miliard dolarů)

(Zajímalo by mě, kdo odsouhlasil tu hudbu v pozadí)

Nejbližší továrna je v Drážďanech, patří GlobalFoundries, společnosti, která vznikla v roce 2009 odštěpením výroby z AMD a kterou dnes plně vlastní emirát Abú Zabí skrz svůj technologický fond. GlobalFoundries vlastní na světě 10 továren - jednu v Německu, šest v Singapuru a tři v USA.

Na Wikipedii je neúplný seznam továren
List of semiconductor fabrication plants - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia…

Intel jich podle toho seznamu dnes provozuje dvanáct.
20.01.2016 11:17
The miasma theory held that diseases such as cholera, chlamydia or the Black Death were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air".

The miasma theory was accepted from ancient times in Europe, India, and China. The theory was eventually given up by scientists and physicians after 1880. They instead accepted the germ theory of disease: specific germs, not miasma, caused specific diseases.

Dr. William Farr, the assistant commissioner for the 1851 London census, was an important supporter of the miasma theory. He believed that cholera was transmitted by air, and that there was a deadly concentration of miasmata near the River Thames' banks.
The Crimean War nurse Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) was a proponent of the theory and worked to make hospitals sanitary and fresh-smelling. It was stated in 'Notes on Nursing for the Labouring Classes' (1860) that Nightingale would "keep the air [the patient] breathes as pure as the external air.

Fear of miasma registered in many early nineteenth century warnings concerning what was termed “unhealthy fog”. The presence of fog strongly indicated the presence of miasma. The miasmas behaved like smoke or mist, blown with air currents, wafted by winds. It did not simply travel on air, it changed the air through which it propagated. The atmosphere was infected by miasma, as diseased people were. Many believed miasma was magical, and was able to change the properties of the air and atmosphere completely.
Even though later disproven by the influence of bacteria and the discovery of viruses, the miasma theory helped make the connection between poor sanitation and disease.
Miasma theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia…
07.02.2016 13:51
Stejný soud nyní v jiném případu rozhodl, že provozovatel webu nenese odpovědnost za urážlivé komentáře.
Hungary: Court ruling on liability for “vulgar and offensive” online comments | HUMANERIGHTSEUROPE…

Rozdíl mezi oběma případy byl údajně v tom, že komentáře na Delfi (ten starší rozsudek) byly nenávistné a vyzývaly k násilí, zatímco na Index.hu byly pouze urážlivé.